Utilitarianism - Wikipedia Utilitarianism - Wikipedia

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Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays

The properties are not identical. On what basis, then, can the parties choose?

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We can say the same for prudence and courage. It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the Difference Principle that would most clearly demand deep reforms in existing societies.

Consistency and Commitment

For the moment it must suffice to say: Temperance Temperance has a twofold meaning. But he does need to explain the creation of governments and how they solve the problem he describes. The moral Enquiry makes no use of ideas and impressions, and so no arguments that depend on that distinction can be offered there, including the Representation Argument.

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Hume denies that any native citizen or subject in his own day has made even a tacit promise to obey the government, given that citizens do not think they did any such thing, but rather think they are born to obey it.

One strategy favored recently has been to turn back to the arguments of Groundwork II for help. How many people or companies do you know that blindly follow 'consistency' to their detriment?

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Bentham's work opens with a statement of the principle of utility: And as Sir Joshua Reynolds noted, 'There is no expedient to which a man will resort to avoid the real labour of thinking'.

To put the matter another way, they are not facts at which we arrive by means of argument or reasoning. Therefore, a passion or volition or actionnot having this feature, cannot be opposed by truth and reason.

Louis Althusser

In The Law of Peoples [LP]Rawls relaxes the assumption that society is a closed system that coincides with a nation-state. This invariably happens when the passions cloud our judgment and make deficient objects of satisfaction look more choiceworthy than they really are.

He suggests that the OP should combine the mutual-disinterest assumption with the veil of ignorance. It is this that is entirely compatible with necessity in Hume's sense.

Categorical and Hypothetical Imperatives Kant holds that the fundamental principle of our moral duties is a categorical imperative.

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His method in that work differs from that of the Treatise: The maximin rule directs one to select that alternative where the minimum place is higher on whatever the relevant measure is than the minimum place in any other alternative.

Approval approbation is a pleasure, and disapproval disapprobation a pain or uneasiness. We can ignore the first observation for the moment. Questiones de malo QDM.

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Our aversion or propensity makes us seek the causes of the expected source of pain or pleasure, and we use causal reasoning to discover what they are.

This brings Kant to a preliminary formulation of the CI: