Polysynthesis parameter baker, the polysynthesis parameter
The elaboration of the word is extreme. That these forms appear to differ essentially from those of the ancient and modern languages of the old hemisphere.
I believe the terms are more useful in defining certain drifts than as absolute counters. A polysynthetic language illustrates no principles that are not already exemplified in the more familiar synthetic languages.
She calls the two types for affixal and compositional polysynthesis respectively. In any case it is very difficult to assign all known languages to one or other of these groups, the more so as they are not mutually exclusive.
It is related to them very much as a synthetic language is related to our own analytic English. He also argued that languages were rarely purely of one morphological type, but used different morphological strategies in different parts of the grammar.
That the American languages in general are rich in grammatical forms, and that in their complicated construction, the greatest order, method and regularity prevail That these complicated forms, which I call polysynthesis, appear to exist in all those languages, from Greenland to Cape Horn.
Deictics and other spatial and temporal relations are also very common Polysynthesis parameter baker these bound morphemes in affixally polysynthetic languages. He proposed classifying languages both by the degree of synthesis, classifying Habbo dating as either analytic, synthetic or polysynthetic, and by the technique used to achieve synthesis, classifying languages as agglutinative, fusional, or symbolic.
Many make a weak distinction between nouns and verbs, which allows using affixes to translate these parts of speech. No language has been shown to fit the description of an oligosynthetic language and the concept is not in general use in linguistics.
Baker illustrates the theory with extensive examples from Mohawk and certain languages of the American Southwest, Mesoamerica, Australia, and Siberia to show the generality of his proposals.
Precisely expressed and embedded in a suitable theory of Universal Grammar, this idea has important repercussions for many areas of syntax and related aspects of morphology and semantics.
He closes by discussing the nature of syntactic diversity, how it might have originated, and what it might mean. Duponceau himself had argued that the complex polysynthetic nature of American languages was a relic of a more civilized past, and that this suggested that the Indians of his time had degenerated from a previous advanced stage.
The Polysynthesis Parameter - Mark C. Baker - Google книги
Baker This book investigates in detail the grammar of certain polysynthetic languages--those with very complex verbal morphology.
The polysynthesis parameter states that all phrasal heads must be marked with either agreement morphemes of their direct argument or else incorporate these arguments in that head.
Their most Polysynthesis parameter baker external appearance is that of long polysyllabic words, which being compounded in the manner I have stated, express much at once.
There is justification for the use of all of these terms, though not perhaps in quite the spirit in which they are commonly employed. If the hypothesis were correct, it would mean that free standing nouns in such languages did not constitute syntactical arguments, but simply adjoined specifiers or adjuncts.
This argument results in a comprehensive picture of the grammar of polysynthetic languages that does justice to the paradoxical fact that their syntactic structures are very different from Indo-European languages, while their syntactic principles are almost identical. The Siouan languages he considered "mildly polysynthetic" and agglutinative-fusional.
The opinion of Du Ponceau and Humboldt, therefore, that these processes belong to the ground-plan of American languages, and are their leading characteristics, must be regarded as still uncontroverted in any instance.
Baker argues that one type of polysynthesis is more than an accidental collection of morphological processes; rather, it is a systematic way of representing predicate-argument relationships that is parallel to but distinct from the system used in languages like English.
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It is that in which the greatest number of ideas are comprised in the least number of words. This latter peculiarity marks it off altogether from the processes of agglutination and collocation. They are the following: By an analogous combination of various parts of speech, particularly by means of the verb, so that its various forms and inflections will express not only the principal action, but the greatest possible number of the moral ideas and physical objects connected with it, and will combine itself to the greatest extent with those conceptions which are the subject of other parts of speech, and in other languages require to be expressed by separate and distinct words He defines polysynthetic languages as languages that conform to the syntactic rule that he calls the "polysynthesis parameter", and that as a result show a special set of morphological and syntactic properties.
Brinton[ edit ] The ethnologist Daniel Garrison Brintonthe first professor of anthropology in the US, followed Duponceau, Gallatin and Humboldt in seeing polysynthesis, which he distinguished from incorporation, as a defining feature of all the languages of the Americas.
He considered polysynthesis to be a general characteristic of American languages, but he did qualify the statement by mentioning that certain languages such as Otomi and the Tupi-Guarani languages had been claimed to be basically analytic.
On the other hand, they are generally easier to distinguish from non-polysynthetic languages than affixally polysynthetic languages. Generative approaches[ edit ] The sentence structure of polysynthetic languages has been taken as a challenge for linguists working within Noam Chomsky 's generative theoretical framework that operates with the assumption that all the world's languages share a set of basic syntactic principles.
Among the examples of polysynthetic languages he gave was Haida which he considered to use the agglutinative-isolating technique, Yana and Nootka both of which he considered agglutinative, Chinook and Algonkin which he considered fusional.